Thursday, December 12, 2019
Emergence of Modern Communication Language - MyAssignmenthelp
Question: Write about theEmergence of Modern Communication Language. Answer: Background: The world turning into global village has created a need for the formation of international language used as source of communication. But hardly people know about the origination of language. Due to Invasion of Anglo, Saxons and Jutes in Britannia, the Latin language at that absorbed many dialects of the invading tribes in (6-11 Century). This marked the origination of Old English. As per Kumaravadivelu (2012), Modern English has adopted many words of the Old English. The invasion of Norse, Scandavian people, was a turning point for English, which was given its grammar and structure formation. While in the 6th century, Christianity granted various load words to the Latin language and in turn granting more words to the English language. French after becoming the prestige language in 1066 after Noman invasion categorized the language into different categories. Kings and noble men spoke French while the middle class and merchants spoke English and French both. The common people spoke on ly English. This was the time English adopted words of French too. With high adaptation level, the Printing Press in 1490 took step for enforcement of standards of Language. They highlighted the need of standards for preserving the language. English Language Experts were deeply concern with the frequent changes in language, Confusion and perplexity for it. Finally, their efforts resulted in forming standards for punctuation, proper usage, spellings and words.(Strang, 2015)He also show that Britain expansion to one third of land through trade, made English more common to other parts of world too in 1780. Further British Colonism, Granted words from second languages also, to the English. Research Question: What standards to use English as an international language? What is the need of standards? How capitalism affected the usage of English all over? How the linguistic imperialism has aided in the dominance of language? Will the English continue to be dominant language in future? what will be the counter languages and their reasons to dominate over English? Literature Review The step of globalization laid great emphasis for usage of English as an international language. The west world in lust of power tried to access the science and technology in1800-1949, which finally created great stress for common language for communication (Wengfeng and Gao,2008). Whereas in 1949, the communist won and restored the worth of their language too. Whereas as suggested by Jin, Cortazzi (2006), the Chinese learned new languages Russian and English to counteract the effects of capitalism. While during the cultural revolution of the world in 1966-1976, world went through great transformation. In 1966-1968, many of the schools were closed and when opened, they became center of politics, without any colour of foreign language. Children were taught slogans like Long live Chairman Mao. Even the effects of politics were incorporated in English dictionaries. Ji in Pucilowski(2005) shed light on the political effects in dictionaries to affect the minds of learners. They were taugh t lessons of hatred by degrading the western capital society, which was losing. They were also taught they cannot live without the president Mao and could not have any happiness to. They were hypnotized with the mesmerizing effects of party and called that they will do everything the party would say them. They were made aware that for these ideas, they needed to invest great amount of energy and sacrifices but they were taught to remain loyal to party in any circumstance. Finally in 1976, Mao died ending the culture reformation and inviting the new leader Deng Xiaoping, who proved to be of immense worth as he made strong ties with US by forming better policies to improve the suffered relations between countries. This once again invited the foreign English teachers come for teaching English and removing the barriers of trade and advancement of technology (Pan, D Block,2011). It was emphasized the enforcement of standards to maintain the quality of English language free from mistakes. However the mingling of cultures, created Chinglish, a substandard version of English. Despite of efforts, few terms like long time no see and lost face were affected by the Chinese usage. China realizing the importance of English for advancement in all the fields of life, ranging from economics till maintain ideology, laid great emphasis on the nationalists to learn English as modern language. They made them realize that this way they will conquer the world and restore their integrity and continue to prosper in economic world as well. No doubt countries realize the importance of English as common language for communication to make the world global village, but every country blended English with their language, which created further many versions, Chinglish, Japanese English, Spanglish, Singlish, Kenyan English, and Thai English etc. English is the most widely spoken language by 480 million people (Mackey, 2015). In 2006-7 about 80% of homepages on the World Wide Web were in some k ind of English (cp. German, 4.5%; Japanese, 3.1%).85% of international organizations use English as their official language; while used as 85% for worlds film market; and 90% of academic texts (Crystal, 1997) This clearly shows the importance of English in todays world. Even Political leaders in non-English speaking countries use English to communicate with international media etc. Theoretical Framework: The Kachru model of 1985 demonstrated the various types of English. The model is divided into inner circle, outer circle and expanding circle. The inner circle represented the usage of English of native people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK and the US. While the outer circle represents the usage of language as second language in countries like India, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Kenya former colonies. The last circle, expanding circle exhibits countries which may adopt the language in future as they treat the language as foreign language. Though the model represented the clear usage of English as communicational tool in their countries, but they have not adopted the language completely and brought up changes to adapt it completely for the usage. But this proved that countries were not ready to leave neither their native language nor English. Instead they paved a way in between and joined both of the languages. (Kirkpatrick,2006) Methodology : The semiotic analysis of the above model clearly shows that despite of the desire to speak and use their languages, people from all the countries have realized the importance of using English as their language used in for trade and communication.it also depicts the idea that English will always be treated as foreign language despite of its significance. The statistical data also exhibits the usage of English in various countries. More than 400 million people use English as their native language while 700 million people speak English as foreign language. Approximately over 2700 languages, English has retained its preference with the treasure of richest vocabulary . oxford English dictionary contains 500,000 words. Significance: To sum up, English has conquered all the four field of spoken language, official language, language of sources of information and quantity of information disseminated. So it conquers all the prominent fields to restore its power in technology, academics, communication and trade. It is not only altered by its non- native speakers but by native speakers also (Seidlhofer, 2010). But no doubt the power lies with the US and UK speakers because it is their native language. References: Cortazzi, M. and Jin, L. (1999, 2001). Bridges to learning: Metaphors of teaching, learning and language. In L. Cameron and G. Low (Eds.), Researching and applying metaphor (pp.149-176). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language and Teaching Press. Crystal, D. (1997/2003). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kachru, B. B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk H.G. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures(pp. 11-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lass, Robert (ed) (1999) The Cambridge History of the English Language, Vol 111: 1476-1776. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. Cortazzi, M. and Jin, L. (1999, 2001). Bridges to learning: Metaphors of teaching, learning and language. In L. Cameron and G. Low (Eds.), Researching and applying metaphor (pp.149-176). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language and Teaching Press. Crystal, D. (1997/2003). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kachru, B. B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk H.G. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures(pp. 11-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crystal, D., 2012. English as a global language. Cambridge University Press. Jin, L. and Cortazzi, M., 2006. Changing practices in Chinese cultures of learning. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 19(1), pp.5-20. Kumaravadivelu, B., 2012. Individual identity, cultural globalization, and teaching English as an international language. Principles and practices for teaching English as an international language, 9. Seidlhofer, B., 2005. English as a lingua franca. ELT journal, 59(4), p.339. Strang, B.M., 2015. A history of English (Vol. 26). Routledge. Wenfeng, W. and Gao, X., 2008. English language education in China: A review of selected research. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 29(5), pp.380-399. Zheng, H.B. and Song, W.J., 2010. Metaphor Analysis in the Educational Discourse: A Critical Review. Online Submission, 8(9), pp.42-49. Mackey, A. and Gass, S.M., 2015.Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge.